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清史研究  2016, Vol. 0 Issue (2): 45-56    DOI:
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乾隆之生母及乾隆帝的汉人血统问题
吉林师范大学历史学院满族文化研究所
Emperor Qianlong’s Birth Mother and The Emperor’s Han Chinese Blood lineage
School of History,Jilin Normal University
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摘要 本文论证, 乾隆皇帝之生母, 并非汉人“钱氏”, 乃京畿宝坻县汉人彭氏所生之女, 生父是满人钮祜禄氏凌住。由于凌住及其上辈有汉人血分, 因而此女的汉人血分也较多, 她与雍亲王胤禛所生之弘历即后来的乾隆帝, 也有汉人血分, 而且其汉人血分稍多于满人血分, 并有少量蒙古血分, 是满汉蒙混血。文章认为, 留存于现今的雍正帝册封弘历生母为汉人“钱氏” 的谕旨资料, 疑问颇多。之所以谕旨中出现“钱氏” 字样, 实际情况当是, 面承雍正帝册封嫔妃口谕的贝子允祹, 因速记、简写受封者钮祜禄氏为“钮氏”, 字迹潦草, 交官吏撰拟谕旨草稿, 形近而讹, 误写为“钱氏”, 草拟册文, 也沿用“钱氏” 二字。在将册封文镌刻于“金册” 以赐予受封者时, 才发现误写, 主管此事的允祹难辞其咎, 因而在册封嫔妃之事上因“误写妃姓” 而被惩罚。乾隆生母为汉人彭氏所生一事, 也是清廷虽禁止满汉通婚而实际存在满汉结姻的较重要史实。
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关键词清代   乾隆帝   熹妃   汉人血统     
Abstract: This article argued that the birth mother of Emperor Qianlong was not the Han “Qian”,but the daughter of Peng,a Han who lived in Baodi prefecture,and her father was Manchurian Niuhuru Lingzhu. Lingzhu and his ancestors had some of blood lineage of Han,so the daughter also had plenty of blood lineages of Han. Therefore the son she had with Prince Yinzhen,as known as Emperor Qianlong,also had blood lineage of Han,and his blood lineage of Han was more than that of Manchu,and combined with some blood lineage of Mongolian,which made him a mix-blood of Han,Manchu and Mongolian. This article argued that there are a lot of problems with the imperial edict which conferred the birth mother of Qianlong as “Qian”. In this article,the author proved that the birth mother of Qianlong could not be “Qian”,but the Niuhuru. The reason for the “Qian” appeared in the imperial edict is as followed. Prince Yuntao who wrote down emperor’s verbal instructions used stenography and abbreviation to write down Niuhuru as Niu. However,due to his careless handwriting,the officials who wrote imperial edict mistaken it as “Qian”. They didn’t notice the mistake until they wrote it down on the golden book and gave it to the awardee. Yuntao who made this mistake was then punished for mistaking the name of imperial concubine. The birth mother of Emperor Qianlong was the daughter of a Han,which is also an important fact that proved intermarriage between Manchu and Han was forbidden but actually existed in Qing dynasty.
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作者简介: 杜家骥(1949-),男,吉林师范大学历史学院满族文化研究所教授、南开大学历史学院教授,天津 300071;dujiaji102@ 126.com
引用本文:   
. 乾隆之生母及乾隆帝的汉人血统问题[J]. 清史研究, 2016, 0(2): 45-56.
. Emperor Qianlong’s Birth Mother and The Emperor’s Han Chinese Blood lineage[J]. Studies in Qing History, 2016, 0(2): 45-56.
 
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