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清史研究  2016, Vol. 0 Issue (4): 78-89    DOI:
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官方贸易主导下清代西北地区市场体系的形成
首都师范大学历史学院
The Formation of Northwestern Regions’Market System in Qing Dynasty under the Dominance of Official Trade
School of History, Capital Normal University
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摘要 清代是中国疆域稳固发展的重要历史时期, 伴随西北地区行政建制的逐步完善, 交通体系也形成系统。除京师通西北的“皋兰官路”, 沿明长城东起京师, 西展至肃州、酒泉军站的北边道路也进一步形成。交通道路的开辟, 加强了西北与东南省区的贸易往来。清前期在官方贸易主导之下, 逐渐形成统一、规范的市场体系。以西安、泾阳、三原为全国性东西货品的加工与转运中心, 以兰州为二级货物分销点,以西宁、哈密、宁夏、古城等地为三级批发市场, 形成西北地区大宗货品茶叶、布匹、海岱杂货以及西北地区毛皮、药材的东输西运中心。乾隆以后, 伴随官方贸易逐渐减弱, 商人力量加强, 这种市场体系更加稳固, 直到近代, 开埠通商、铁路运行以及西方商行的介入才逐渐改变了这种贸易格局。西北五省经济上的一体性进一步促成地区行政体系的整合, 建国初期中国行政大区规划方案将西北五省作为统一体, 主要基于五省经济结构的一体性。
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关键词清代   西北五省   官方贸易   市场体系     
Abstract: The Qing dynasty was a significant historical period for the stabilization and development of China’s territory. During this period,as the administrative institutions of northwestern regions were gradually optimized and the transportation system began to take shape. In addition to the "Gaolan Official Route,”which linked the capital with the northwestern region,there were also routes in the north that ran along the Great Wall to Beijing and to outposts in Suzhou and Jiuquan. The opening of these transportation routes enhanced trade between the northwestern and southeastern regions, and thus a unified and normative market system,dominated by official trade,developed in the early Qing dynasty. A center for transporting and trading tea, clothing, foodstuffs, furs from northwestern regions and medicine took shape,with Xi’an,Jingyang and Sanyuan as the manufacturing and transporting center of national commodities, Lanzhou as the secondary sale depot, and Xining, Hami,Ningxia and Gucheng as the tertiary wholesale markets. This market system became more stable after Qianlong emperor’s reign due to the weakened influence of official trade and growing power of merchants. This trading pattern did not change until the opening of treaty ports,the operation of trains,and the intervention of Western firms in modern times. The economic integration of the five northwestern provinces further facilitated the integration of regional administrative system. Based on this economic integration,the administrative plan of China took the five northwestern provinces as an integrated area in the early period of People’s Republic of China.
Key wordsQing dynasty   the five northwestern provinces   official trade   market system   
基金资助:

2014 年国家社会科学重大项目资助(142DB031)。

作者简介: 张萍(1965 - ), 女, 首都师范大学历史学院教授, 北京100048; zhangping029@126. com
引用本文:   
. 官方贸易主导下清代西北地区市场体系的形成[J]. 清史研究, 2016, 0(4): 78-89.
. The Formation of Northwestern Regions’Market System in Qing Dynasty under the Dominance of Official Trade [J]. Studies in Qing History, 2016, 0(4): 78-89.
 
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