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清史研究  2017, Vol. 0 Issue (3): 69-81    DOI:
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清代省友、司院书吏与州县省事
浙江师范大学人文学院历史系环东海与边疆研究院、江南文化研究中心
“Provincial Friends,”Clerks and Their Role in Managing the Provincial Affairs of District Magistrates: The Activities of Song Shusen in Gansu Province during the Guangxu period
PEI Danqing
Department of History,College of Humanities; The East China SEA Rim Research Institute; Center for Jiangnan Culture Studies,Zhejiang Normal University
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摘要 清代省友是州县延聘、长驻省城的办事人员,负责州县衙门在省级主管行政机构藩司、臬司及督抚部院的相关事务,诸如办理州县交代册、领解钱粮、投文解犯、打探信息等。其中,关书、使费与文册是省友的受事之源,省友藉此请托司、院书吏援通办理州县省务,甚至在使费支付数目、钱粮领取与某些事务上有“擅专”的空间。然而,这种“擅专”并非毫无限制,省友与司、院书吏携手操持州县省事时,书吏会根据上宪的执政态度与关防严密程度而使相关事务在法律法规及各项省规所允许的范围内弹性延伸,省友在使费支付与钱粮领解方面不同程度地受到州县的牵制。省友与司、院书吏在利益驱动下对州县省务的不规范运作,有促进上下级行政机构有效沟通、提高地方衙门行政效率的积级作用。这说明清代地方行政机构中需要有效的行政架构和人员设置来协办省级与州县衙门间的公务,反映出清代地方行政运行机制的缺陷和制度设计的不合理。
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关键词省友   书吏   州县官   省事   清代     
Abstract: “Provincial friends”( shengyou) ,hired by district magistrates and stationed in provincial capitals, were responsible for the county government's provincial affairs,such as handling reports and guaranties from the outgoing magistrate to the successor,drawing salaries,delivering various fees,handing over convicts to the provincial judge,seeking information,and other tasks. The obtainment of engagement letters,promised fees,and records were prerequisite for these activities. As a result,“Provincial friends”had a degree of discretionary power. However,this kind of power was not unrestricted. When dealing with provincial affairs,clerks had to act in accord with laws,regulations,rules and the attitudes of superior leaders. “Provincial friends”were subject to certain constraints by the magistrate in the payment of fees,collection of salaries,and other matters. Although this kind of operation was irregular and driven by self-interest,it played an effective and positive role in local agencies. This shows that the local administrative bodies in the Qing Dynasty needed an effective bureaucratic structure and personnel to coordinate affairs between the provincial and county government to overcome the deficient and irrational design of the local government institutions.
Key wordsprovincial friends   clerks   county magistrate   provincial affairs   Qing dynasty   
作者简介: 裴丹青( 1979 - ) ,女,浙江师范大学人文学院历史系环东海与边疆研究院、江南文化研究中心讲师,金华321004; peidq@ zjnu. edu. cn
引用本文:   
. 清代省友、司院书吏与州县省事[J]. 清史研究, 2017, 0(3): 69-81.
. “Provincial Friends,”Clerks and Their Role in Managing the Provincial Affairs of District Magistrates: The Activities of Song Shusen in Gansu Province during the Guangxu period[J]. Studies in Qing History, 2017, 0(3): 69-81.
 
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