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清史研究  2018, Vol. 0 Issue (2): 69-81    DOI:
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  “三年准调、五年准升”之例:清代外官久任制度考论
渤海大学政治与历史学院
The System of Allowing Transfers Every Three Years and Promotion every Five Years in Office: A Study of Local Official Long Term Tenure System in the Qing Dynasty
School of Politics and History,Bohai University
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摘要 “三年准调、五年准升”之例,是乾隆年间清廷为限制外官频繁更调而制定的一项期望官员久任的政策。这对于规范督抚的题调行为,改变地方朝令夕改、官不久任的现象,具有重要意义。然颁行不久,即因外省频请拣发,被迫修改,允许将年例不符之人专折奏闻,为督抚的肆意题调创造了条件。这其中有人事环境之使然,亦有督抚主观因素的作用,而弊病之根源,则在于高度集权的专制体制。
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关键词“三年准调、五年准升”之例   外官   选任   久任   官僚政治     
Abstract: The system of allowing transfers every three years and promotion every five years in office that was formulated during Qianlong reign was a long term tenure policy designed to restrict the frequent transfer of local officials. The policy played a significant role in regularizing the assignment of governors and ameliorating the unpredictable changes in policy. Unfortunately, it was soon modified because of provincial governors’ frequent requests for transfers. This modification opened a convenient door in the whole system for the governors because it allowed for local officials to petition to avoid the tenure regulation, and this resulted in a failure to constrain the appointments of governors. In addition to the personnel matters and the governors’ objective factors, the root cause of the failure was the authoritarian system.
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作者简介: 张振国(1981- ) ,男,渤海大学政治与历史学院副教授,锦州121013; ahzhzhg@163.com
引用本文:   
.   “三年准调、五年准升”之例:清代外官久任制度考论[J]. 清史研究, 2018, 0(2): 69-81.
. The System of Allowing Transfers Every Three Years and Promotion every Five Years in Office: A Study of Local Official Long Term Tenure System in the Qing Dynasty[J]. Studies in Qing History, 2018, 0(2): 69-81.
 
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