The system of allowing transfers every three years and promotion every five years in office that was formulated during Qianlong reign was a long term tenure policy designed to restrict the frequent transfer of local officials. The policy played a significant role in regularizing the assignment of governors and ameliorating the unpredictable changes in policy. Unfortunately, it was soon modified because of provincial governors’ frequent requests for transfers. This modification opened a convenient door in the whole system for the governors because it allowed for local officials to petition to avoid the tenure regulation, and this resulted in a failure to constrain the appointments of governors. In addition to the personnel matters and the governors’ objective factors, the root cause of the failure was the authoritarian system．
. The System of Allowing Transfers Every Three Years and Promotion every Five Years in Office: A Study of Local Official Long Term Tenure System in the Qing Dynasty[J]. Studies in Qing History, 2018, 0(2): 69-81.