Most historical data have a complex generation process and data may vary widely due to different historical sources, measurement standards, statistical methods and estimates. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the basic data in quantitative history meticulously. However, former studies of famine history neither paid enough attention to the regulation of famines, characteristics of the documentation and the system of famine relief, nor did these studies use sophisticated methods of statistics and calculation. So both the disaster records and famine relief records are inaccurate. In the process of obtaining historical data, not only do we have to consider fully the reality of academic research to use the data scientifically, but we also must grasp the basic characteristics of the object of study and the inner logic of documentary records in order to use the data historically. It is important to pay attention to data matching and its scope of application when dealing with data.