The Manchu-Han ratio among judicial officials in Beijing changed because of the“ New Policies” (xinzheng) at the end of the Qing dynasty. Before 1906 when the Qing court reformed its administration, Manchu（ or bannermen) always outnumbered Han (or civilians) among the statutory officials of the Three High Courts (sanfasi). Furthermore, Manchus nearly monopolized the lower ranks of judicial officials (bottom three grades). After 1906, the number of judicial officials increased. Even though the number of Manchus officials grew, Han officials proliferated more rapidly. The number of Han officials gradually expanded and eventually exceeded Manchus in the Ministry of Justice (fabu). The majority of officials at the Council of Judicial Review (daliyuan), metropolitan courts and prosecutor’s offices in each level were Han. Thus, it can be concluded that the policy of eradicating “boundaries between Manchus and Han” was in effect in the appointment of metropolitan judicial officials.
. “New Policies” and the Manchu-Han Ratio among Judicial Officials in the Capital at the End of the Qing Dynasty (1901-1912): A Study Based on the Jinshenlu Database[J]. Studies in Qing History, 2018, 0(4): 21-35.